YouTurn Adds Automatic Track Repeat Feature to Videos on YouTube


Having to click the play button repeatedly just to replay the YouTube videos you really like can be quite annoying. With YouTurn, you can now replay YouTube videos automatically. The process is simple, locate the grey colored circle within the address bar and click on it when you are viewing a video. Once you do this, the color of the circle will change to green, telling you that Automatic Repeat has been switched on. Automatic replay can be toggled off and on by clicking this button. The functionality of the extension is limited; however users who listen to music on YouTube will find this feature very useful.

After the extension has been installed, find the grey colored circle within the address bar and click on it to activate Auto replay. After doing this, you will observe that the color of the circle has changed to green, which is an indication that auto repeat has been turned on. All videos can now be automatically replayed. But if you enable it when you are watching videos from a playlist and the Autoplay option is activated, the feature will fail to work. If you want videos from a playlist to be repeated, You have to switch off the autoplay option. The button for doing that is located at the base of the video. Your videos can now replay automatically if the extension is enabled.

You will find YouTurn highly beneficial, if you do not like moving towards your computer to hit the repeat button each time the video/song finishes. Get the extension using the link provided below.

Download And Install YouTurn for Chrome

How to Bookmark a Page in Adobe Reader

Though countless pdf readers are available in the market but still Adobe Reader is used by the majority of users. However , as the Adobe Reader grew in popularity , it shifted some very important features to its paid version . One such feature is bookmarking feature. With free version , it is not possible to bookmark a page in Adobe Reader. However , this little tweak can give you the same feature in a different way . Here is what to do :

  1. Open Adobe Reader and click on Edit>Preferences
  2. Click on Documents on left
  3. Enable the feature Restore last view settings when reopening document.
  4. Click Ok and exit from Adobe Reader.

Now when you will open a pdf document , the software would remember the page where you last closed it.

How to Install OpenVPN on Ubuntu Linux VPS

This post is in continuation of my earlier post where we discussed how to install OpenVPN on Centos Linux VPS  . Today i am going to graphically show you how to install OpenVPN on a Ubuntu VPS . In this post i will be omitting some very basic steps like installing putty and openvpn  client on Windows , editing files with vi text editor etc and transferring files through winscp . You may refer to the earlier post i mentioned for these basic steps . Here is what you will require to accomplish this installation of OpenVPN on Ubuntu :

  • An OpenVZ  VPS with minimum 64 MB ( preferably 128 MB ) RAM with vanilla install of Ubuntu 11.04 OS. I tested this tuotorial with Ubuntu 11.04 , though i have all the reasons to believe that it should work for other ubuntu versions as well. You must be having root access to the VPS. You can get cheap VPS under $20 per year easily . For some very cheap offers you can find this site very  useful.
  • Putty for connecting remotely with your VPS
  • Winscp for tranferring certificates and key files to your computer.
  • OpenVPN client for your computer.
With this small introduction we begin our ‘long’  journey of installing OpenVPN on a Ubuntu VPS.
UPDATE: ( If you get stuck at any point, it is likely that the package versions mentioned in these commands have been replaced by a newer version. Try to replace the version number with a newer version. For example in this command cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/    the new version number might be 2.1 or 2.2 or whatever. Google for the latest version and you should be good to go to install OpenVPN on Ubuntu. I will try to refresh this tutorial when i get some free time. But basically the commands will remain same.)

Step One: Connect to your computer through putty as root and issue the following commands ( one by one ) to update your Ubuntu installation and packages.

apt-get update

apt-get upgrade –show-upgraded



Step Two: Install Ubuntu OpenVPN server by issuing the following command in Putty Window.

apt-get install openvpn udev



Step Three : Ubuntu OpenVPN comes with encryption tool called Easy RSA and we need to copy relevant files to the OpenVPN directory. Issue the following command in the Putty Window.

cp -R /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/easy-rsa/ /etc/openvpn

Step Four: Next we are going to initiate the Public Key Infrastructure ( PKI ) and build Certificate Authority which we will use to create keys and certificates for Server and clients of OpenVPN. Issue the following commands.

cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/

. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/vars

. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/clean-all

. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-ca

The last command will initiate a script that will ask for values. Just keep on hitting the Enter button on your computer and accept the default values except the email which you would like to change , though it is not very critical.


Step Five: Next we need to create Server Key using the Certificate Authority we built in Step Four of installing OpenVPN on Ubuntu. Issue the following command in the putty window and just keep on hitting Enter button at prompts ( optionally you might want to change the email ) :

. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-key-server server


Similarly we also need to create client key by using the following command in Putty terminal window:

. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-key client1


Step Six : We need to generate Deffie Hellman Parameters which will be governing the key exchanges between the client and the server of Ubuntu OpenVPN. Issue the following command in Putty Terminal window.

. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-dh


Step Seven : Next we need to relocate the keys from  /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/keys to /etc/openvpn directory by using the following commands in the Putty window :

cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/keys

cp ca.crt ca.key dh1024.pem server.crt server.key /etc/openvpn


Step Eight : In this step we are going to configure the Virtual Private Network by altering certain configuring files that come as default with the the installation of OpenVPN on Ubuntu. Here we will need to use the linux text editor named vi . It is very easy to use all you have to remember is that in order to enter Insert Mode ( editing mode ) , you will need to press i on your keyboard. To come out of the insert mode and save the changes you will press Escape button your  keyboard and then type :wq and press enter. Issue the following commands one by one in the Putty Window :

cd /usr/share/doc/openvpn/examples/sample-config-files

gunzip -d server.conf.gz

cp server.conf /etc/openvpn/

cp client.conf ~/

cd ~/

vi client.conf

Edit the client.conf file at two locations :

Enter the IP address of your Ubuntu VPS and rename client.crt an client.key files to client1.crt and client1.key .



Step Nine : Now is the time to start the Ubuntu OpenVPN Server . Use the following command in the Putty terminal window :

/etc/init.d/openvpn start


Step Ten : In this step we are going to do necessary amendments to tunnel all traffic through the OpenVPN server on the VPS.  We need to amend certain files .

First issue the following command and edit server.conf file.

vi  /etc/openvpn/server.conf

uncomment the following line

push “redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp”

and then add the following line

push “dhcp-option DNS”



Step Eleven : Next we need to edit /etc/sysctl.conf file .

Issue the following command

 vi /etc/sysctl.conf

and uncomment the following line



Next we issue the following command in the

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

Next issue the following commands to configure Iptables one by one:

iptables -A FORWARD -m state –state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -s -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -j REJECT
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s -j SNAT –to-source YourVPSIP

(Insert your vps Ip in place of red text before issuing last command.)


Next issue the following command to edit /etc/rc.local file and add the iptables rules in there :

vi /etc/rc.local

iptables -A FORWARD -m state –state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -s -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -j REJECT
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s -j SNAT –to-source YourVPSIP

(Again remember to Insert your vps Ip in place of red text before issuing last command.)

Finally restart the Ubuntu OpenVPN server by the following command in putty terminal window :

/etc/init.d/openvpn restart


Step Twelve : Next we transfer the following four files from VPS Ubuntu OpenVPN server to client machine where you would install openvpn client and transfer those files to config directory of OpenVPN . You can refer to my earlier post  (step 9 and Step 15 ) for Installation of OpenVPN on Centos for instructions on how to transfer the files through WinScp towards the end of the article. With these minor steps of transferring key files to your client computer , we have successfully installed OpenVPN on Ubuntu VPS .

And finally you will be able to test your IP through or other similar sites and if the reported IP is that of your VPS , then you have followed my tutorial in true spirit  and successfully installed OpenVPN on Ubuntu. You will be able to watch the geo restricted content then and bypass any filters your ISP or government may have imposed like i was able to watch Hulu though i am in Pakistan . This is a free world and internet is born to be free without any restrictions.



This was all about it . And believe you me , it is as simple as it gets and you wont find any tutorial on the internet simpler than this to install OpenVPN on Ubuntu .

How to Install OpenVPN on Centos Linux VPS

I am back after a long time , courtesy my loyal companion which is none other than lethargy. This time around i am going to write a tutorial on installing CentOS OpenVPN on a vps. This will be graphical like my other tutorials so that if you follow through , you install CentOS OpenVPN successfully and use it. The big question is why i should install openvpn on vps? Well for me the biggest reason is that i want to change my ip to watch stuff like Hulu and BBC iPlayer which is restricted in my country. Another benefit of CentOS OpenVPN is the security it offers by encrypting traffic on public networks like public wifi spots which are not very safe otherwise. There might be some other business benefits which i am not aware of.


You will need to buy a VPS with vanilla install of Centos 32 bit as OS to install CentOS OpenVPN . The minimum memory is 64 mb but i would recommend 128 mb to be on the safe side. You will buy vps with an IP of the country u wish to see content from. For example if you want to watch HULU or other american restricted content , you will buy vps with IP located in USA . If you want to watch BBC content , you will need to buy vps from UK  hosting companies. If you just want to byepass content filters in your country , then any vps outside your country will do once you successfully install CentOS OpenVPN.

You will also need to download and install Putty which you can find here.

Step 1.

Log in to your VPS using Putty.

On the next screen login with user root and your root password.


Step 2:

You also need to ensure that TUN/TAP interface is installed and enabled by your vps provider to install CentOS OpenVPN. In order to check if TUN/TAP is installed or not , issue the follow command and see the output. If the output is something like this ” File Descriptor is in bad state” , then TUN/TAP is installed . Otherwise contact your VPS provider to install it or correctly install it.

cat /dev/net/tun

Step 3

In order to install CentOS OpenVPN server on the vps we need to add extra respository named EPEL. Issue the following command to add the repository on Centos 32 bit.

rpm -Uvh


Then issue the following command

yum update

After the Centos OS updates , issue the following command to install OpenVPN server on the VPS

yum install openvpn

Step 4

CentOS OpenVPN uses easy-rsa as its encryption tools. In order for them to work correctly , they are required to be moved to openvpn directory.  Issue the following command.

cp -R /usr/share/openvpn/easy-rsa/ /etc/openvpn

Step 5

Next we need to configure public key infrastructure variables. This is about time you learn basic commands of linux text editor called VI . Issue the following command.

vi /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/vars

In order to edit the file , hit letter i on your computer. This will take the editor in insert mode. At the end of the file change the email to email of your choice.  Leave the other options as it is . After finishing editing hit escape button , and then write :wq and hit enter. Your changes will be saved.


Step 6

Now is the time to initialize Public key infrastructure and build our own Certificate Authority. Issue the following commands one by one.

cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/
. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/vars
. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/clean-all
. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-ca

After the last command , you will be presented with different options , just keep on hitting enter button because we have already set the values in the previous step 4.


Step 7

In this step to install CentOS OpenVPN we are going to build Server Keys and certificates etc. Issue the following command.

. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-key-server server

Just hit enter as many times as it is asked for and twice you will need to enter y when offered with the options of y/n ( meaning yes or no.. you dont have any option but yes 🙂

Step 8

In the next step we are going to create client keys. Issue the following command.

. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-key client1

And as in the previous step , just hit enter as many times as asked for and twice y.


Step 9

In this step , we are going to generate Diffie Hellman Parameters which are needed for key exchange and authentication with CentOS OpenVPN server on VPS. Issue the following command.

. /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/build-dh

It will take some time and you will see the following output.

Step 10

In this step , we are going to relocate the client keys to the Client PC. You will need WinScp ftp client and transfer keys to any folder of your choice on your computer using sftp protocol. You will need your vps IP and root login and password to login using WinScp.


Step 11

Next we need to relocate the following files to /etc/openvpn directory on VPS server

  • ca.crt
  • ca.key
  • dh1024.pem
  • server.crt
  • server.key

We can do so by issuing the following commands one by one

cd /etc/openvpn/easy-rsa/2.0/keys
cp ca.crt ca.key dh1024.pem server.crt server.key /etc/openvpn

Step 11

In this step we are going to configure the client.conf file on the VPS server which we will subequently use to connect to CentOS OpenVPN server. Issue the following commands.

cp /usr/share/doc/openvpn-2.1.4/sample-config-files/server.conf /etc/openvpn/
cp /usr/share/doc/openvpn-2.1.4/sample-config-files/client.conf ~/
cd ~/

Next we need to edit the client.conf file. Issue the following command

 vi ~/client.conf

Here we will edit the IP of the VPS server and change client.crt and client.key to client1.crt and client1.key.


Save hitting escape and then :wq and exit Vi editor.

Step 12

Now is the time to start the Openvpn server and make it start even after boot. Issue the following commands.

/etc/init.d/openvpn start
chkconfig openvpn on

Next we are going to edit the server.conf file . Issue the following command

vi /etc/openvpn/server.conf

In order to tunnel traffic through vps server uncomment the following line by deleting the starting semicolon

push "redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp"

save the file with :wq

Next issue the following command

vi /etc/sysctl.conf


net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0


net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1


Now we set this variable for the current session by issuing the following command.

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

Next we need to configure IPTables for Nating the traffic through CentOS OpenVPN VPS. Issue the following commands one by one.

iptables -A FORWARD -m state –state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -s -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -j REJECT
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s -j SNAT –to
Instead of , use your own VPS IP above.
Step 13
Next issue the following command to make these IPtables rules permanant.
vi /etc/rc.local

Edit the file and make it look like this



# […]


iptables -A FORWARD -m state –state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

iptables -A FORWARD -s -j ACCEPT

iptables -A FORWARD -j REJECT

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s -j SNAT –to

touch /var/lock/subsys/local

Instead of , use your own VPS IP above.

Step 14

Now we will install dnsmasq package so that our browser traffic is also routed through the Openvpn on our Centos VPS server. Issue the following commands one by one.

yum install dnsmasq
/etc/init.d/dnsmasq start
chkconfig dnsmasq on


Step 15

We need to edit server.conf one last time and add the following line. Issue the command

vi /etc/openvpn/server.conf

and add the following line to the file


push "dhcp-option DNS"

Hit escape and then :wq to save the file.

Finally we restart the CentOS openvpn server by issuing the following command.

/etc/init.d/openvpn restart

Now on the client side on your pc , you need to download openvpn client from here and install it.

Log in to your server again with winScp and rename the file client.conf on root to client1.conf and transfer it to your PC where you transferred other three files in step 9.


In the programmes Folder on your C drive , go to the OpenVPN folder and then copy all the four files copied to your PC into config/vpn   folder. Rename the files client1.config to client1.ovpn .

Now double click openvpn gui and in the task pane at right right click the icon and click on Connect. Here you go.. Enjoy your centos vps as CentOS Openvpn server. Now you can browse with a changed IP address. You should visit any IP identification site like and see your ip. You IP should be that of your vps. If it is not so , then you missed some steps or did make a mess of some steps of this easiest tutorial on installing openvpn on Centos VPS.  My VPS Ip address is of UK. so i can watch BBC iplayer stuff on my computer in Pakistan which otherwise is not possible.


openvpn-connected watching-bbc

Download All Facebook Photos In Your Account

Facebook has become a way of life and there are many people who are continuously uploading photos , vidoes and other information on Facebook. Until recently , there was no way to download your information that you have uploaded on Facebook. But a recent change at Facebook has now allowed users to download all their information onto their computer with a single click. However , it may be noted that the download will not be containing the information that you yousrelf have deleted.

In order to download all facebook photos in your account , follow these simple steps:

1. Click on Account > Account Settings    in upper right corner of your Facebook page after you have logged into your account.

2. Near the bottom of the page , you will see ” Download Your Information ” . Click on “Learn More ” opposite to it.

3. Next Screen will provide a Download Button. Click on that .facebook-download-photos-2

4. A link to Download  will be sent to your email associated with your Facebook Account.

5. Click on that link and re-enter your password information and you will be able to download all Facebook photos in your account.

15 Creative New Facebook Profiles

With the launch of photo layout of profile page of Facebook , users have started to make really creative facebook profile pages.

Alexandre Oudin is credited with starting this new craze and now numerous designs have surfaced. People have been trying to create unique and creative Facebook Profile pages ever since the launch of Facebook but this new redesign has allowed them to have fun inspired pages with mix of photographic beauty , typography and animations.

We have created a list of 15 interesting facebook profile pages that we came across . Look at the pictures and get inspired and build your own creative new page.